Scriptural Verses A – Key Concepts

Scriptural Verses A (word doc for download)

Section A – Key Concepts

Further passages on Hindu concepts can be found in Section D. Thios section goes through the 12 Key Concepts, as they explained in the Teacher’ Book

1. The Atman (the Soul)

The Self, pure awareness, shines as the light
Within the heart, surrounded by the senses.
Only seeming to think, seeming to move, the
Self neither sleeps nor wakes nor dreams.

When the Self takes on a body, he seems to
Assume the body’s frailties and limitations;
But when he sheds the body at the time of
Death, the Self leaves all these behind.

– Brihadaranyaka Upanishad

Never was there a time when I did not exist, nor you, nor any of these kings, nor in the future shall any of us cease to be.”

– Bhagavad Gita 2.12

Those who are seers of the truth have concluded that of the nonexistent [the material body] there is no endurance and of the eternal [the soul] there is no change. This they have concluded by studying the nature of both.
– Bhagavad Gita 2.16

….that which pervades the entire body is indestructible.

– Bhagavad Gita 2.17

Of the soul there is neither birth nor death at any time. He has not come into being, does not come into being, and will not come into being. He is unborn, eternal, ever-existing and primeval. He is not slain when the body is slain.

– Bhagavad Gita 2.20

The humble sages, by virtue of true knowledge, see with equal vision a learned and gentle brahmana, a cow, an elephant, a dog and a dog-eater [outcaste].

– Bhagavad Gita 5.18

…all living beings, who are seated as on a machine made of the material energy.

– Bhagavad Gita 18.61

O son of Bharata, as the sun alone illuminates all this universe, so does the living entity, one within the body, illuminate the entire body by consciousness.

– Bhagavad Gita 13.34

2. Reincarnation and Samsara

As the embodied soul continuously passes, in this body, from boyhood to youth to old age, the soul similarly passes into another body at death. A sober person is not bewildered by such a change.

– Bhagavad Gita 2.13

As a person puts on new garments, giving up old ones, the soul similarly accepts new material bodies, giving up the old and useless ones.

– Bhagavad Gita 2.22

Whatever state of being one remembers when he quits his body, O son of Kunti, that state he will attain without fail.

– Bhagavad Gita 8.06

3. The Law of Karma

In proportion to the extent of one’s religious or irreligious actions in this life, one
must enjoy or suffer the corresponding reactions of his karma in the next…

– Bhagavat Purana 6.1.45

4. Prakriti (Matter) and Guna

Material nature consists of three modes—goodness, passion and ignorance. When the eternal living entity comes in contact with nature, O mighty-armed Arjuna, he becomes conditioned by these modes.

O son of Bharata, the mode of goodness conditions one to happiness; passion conditions one to fruitive action; and ignorance, covering one’s knowledge, binds one to madness.

From the mode of goodness, real knowledge develops; from the mode of passion, greed develops; and from the mode of ignorance develop foolishness, madness and illusion.

Those situated in the mode of goodness gradually go upward to the higher planets; those in the mode of passion live on the earthly planets; and those in the abominable mode of ignorance go down to the hellish worlds.

– Bhagavad Gita, Chapters 14, Verses 5, 9, 17, 18

5. Maya (Illusion)

On the basis of this misconception, which ties together the hearts of the male and female,
one becomes attracted to his body, home, property, children, relatives and wealth. In this
way one increases life’s illusions and thinks in terms of “I”and “mine”.

– Bhagavat Purana 5.5.8

If a person clings to his attachments, refusing to let go, sorrows will not let go their grip on him.

– Tirukkural 35.347-348

6. Moksha (Liberation)

O best among men (Arjuna),the person who is not disturbed by happiness and distress, and is steady in both, is certainly eligible for liberation.

– Bhagavad Gita 2.15

One who knows the transcendental nature of My appearance and activities does not, upon leaving the body, take his birth again in this material world, but attains My eternal abode, O Arjuna.

– Bhagavad Gita 4.9

Those whose minds are established in sameness and equanimity have already conquered the conditions of birth and death. They are flawless like Brahman, and thus they are already situated in Brahman.

– Bhagavad Gita 5.19

And whoever, at the end of his life, quits his body, remembering Me alone, at once attains My nature. Of this there is no doubt.

– Bhagavad Gita 8.05

After attaining Me, the great souls, who are yogis in devotion, never return to this temporary world, which is full of miseries, because they have attained the highest perfection.

– Bhagavad Gita 8.15

7. God (Brahman / Ishvara)

God, as cause of all causes

Krishna who is known as Govinda is the Supreme Godhead. He has an eternal blissful spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no other origin and He is the prime cause of all causes.

– Brahma Samhita 5.1

God, as source of everything

I am the source of all spiritual and material worlds. Everything emanates from Me. The wise who perfectly know this engage in My devotional service and worship Me with all their hearts.

– Bhagavad Gita 10.8

God, why he descends

Whenever and wherever there is a decline in religious practice, O descendant of Bharata, and a predominant rise of irreligion – at that time I descend Myself.

To deliver the pious and to annihilate the miscreants, as well as to re-establish the principles of religion, I Myself appear, millennium after millennium.

– Bhagavad Gita 4.7-8

God is everywhere

That Brahman is in front and in back, in the north, south, east and west, and also overhead and below. In other words, that supreme Brahman effulgence spreads throughout both the material and spiritual skies.

– Mundaka Upanishad 2.11

God within

I am seated in everyone’s heart, and from me come remembrance, knowledge and forgetfulness-

– Bhagavad Gita 15.15

The Supreme Lord is situated in everyone’s heart. O Arjuna, and is directing the wanderings of all living entities.

– Bhagavad Gita 18.61

God outside of everything

Bhagavan is He who possesses without limit the six types of opulence – strength, fame, wealth, knowledge, beauty and renunciation.

– Vishnu Purana

Just as the illumination of fire, which is situated in one place, is spread all over, so the energy of the Supreme Lord is spread throughout the universe.
– Vishnu Purana 1.22.53

Although fixed in His abode, the Supreme Lord is swifter than the mind and can overcome all others running. He is far away, but is very near as well. He is within everything and yet he is outside of everything.
– Sri Isopanishad Mantra Four

Where does ability come from?

O son of Kunti, I am the taste of water, the light of the sun and the moon, the syllable Om in the Vedic mantras; I am the sound in ether and the ability in man.

– Bhagavad Gita 7.8

God revealed through the natural world

I am the taste of water. I am the light of the sun and the moon. I am the original fragrance of the Earth. I am the heat in fire. I am the life of all that lives. Of lights I am the radiant sun. Among stars I am the moon. Of bodies of water I am the ocean. Of immovable things I am the Himalayas. Of trees I am the banyan-tree. Of weapons I am the thunderbolt. Among beasts I am the lion. Of purifiers I am the wind. Of fishes I am the shark. Of flowing rivers I am the Ganges. Of seasons I am flower-bearing spring. Of secret things I am silence. Know that all opulent, beautiful and glorious creations spring from but a spark of My splendour.

– Bhagavad Gita Summary of Chapter 10

8. Dharma (religious duties)

The supreme occupation (dharma) for all humanity is that by which men can attain to loving devotional service unto the transcendent Lord.

– Bhagavat Purana 1.2.6

According to the three gunas and the work associated with them, the four divisions of human society are created by Me.

– Bhagavad Gita 4.13

Dharma is not the same as faith

Note; this is from a commentary:

The English world religion is a little different from sanatana-dharma. Religion conveys the idea of faith, and faith may change. One may have faith in a particular process, and he may change this faith and adopt another, but sanatana-dharma refers to that activity which cannot be changed. For instance, liquidity cannot be taken from water, nor can heat be taken from fire. Similarly, the eternal function of the eternal living entity cannot be taken from the living entity. Sanatana-dharma is eternally integral with the living entity. When we speak of sanatana-dharma, therefore, we must take it for granted on the authority of Shripad Ramanujacharya that it has neither beginning nor end. That which has neither end nor beginning must not be sectarian, for it cannot be limited by any boundaries. Those belonging to some sectarian faith will wrongly consider that sanatana-dharma is also sectarian, but if we go deeply into the matter and consider it in the light of modern science, it is possible for us to see that sanatana-dharma is the business of all the people of the world—nay, of all the living entities of the universe.

Non-sanatana religious faith may have some beginning in the annals of human history, but there is no beginning to the history of sanatana-dharma, because it remains eternally with the living entities. Insofar as the living entities are concerned, the authoritative Shastras state that the living entity has neither birth nor death. In the Gita, it is stated that the living entity is never born and he never dies. He is eternal and indestructible, and he continues to live after the destruction of his temporary material body. In reference to the concept of sanatana-dharma, we must try to understand the concept of religion from the Sanskrit root meaning of the word. Dharma refers to that which is constantly existing with a particular object. We conclude that there is heat and light along with the fire; without heat and light, there is no meaning to the word fire. Similarly, we must discover the essential part of the living being, that part which is his constant companion. That constant companion is his eternal quality, and that eternal quality is his eternal religion.

. . .In this way we can see that no living being is exempt from rendering service to other living beings, and therefore we can safely conclude that service is the constant companion of the living being and that the rendering of service is the eternal religion of the living being.

Yet, man professes to belong to a particular type of faith with reference to particular time and circumstance and thus claims to be a Hindu, Muslim, Christian, Buddhist or an adherent of any other sect. Such designations are non-sanatana-dharma. A Hindu may change his faith to become a Muslim, or a Muslim may change his faith to become a Hindu, or a Christian may change his faith and so on. But in all circumstances, the change of religious faith does not affect the eternal occupation of rendering service to others. The Hindu, Muslim or Christian in all circumstances is servant of someone. Thus, to profess a particular type of faith is not to profess one’s sanatana-dharma. The
rendering of service is santana-dharma.

– A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami, Bhagavad-Gita As It Is, Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, Los Angeles, 1972

9. One Goal, Different Paths

All performance of dharma is meant for ultimate liberation. It should not be performed for material gain. Furthermore, one who is engaged in the ultimate occupational service (dharma) should not use material gain simply for sense gratification.

– Bhagavat Purana 1.2.9

10. Scripture & Guru (Authority)

One should know what is duty and what is not duty by the regulations of the scriptures.

– Bhagavad Gita 16.24

Only unto those great souls who have unflinching faith in both the Lord and the spiritual teacher, are all the imports of Vedic knowledge automatically revealed.

– Svetashvatara Upanishad 6.38

11. Time

By human calculation, a thousand ages taken together form the duration of Brahma’s one day, and such also is the duration of his night.

– Bhagavad Gita 8.17

Time I am, destroyer of the worlds, and I have come to engage all men.

– Bhagavad Gita 11.32

Both by rising and by setting, the sun decreases the duration of life of everyone, except
one who utilizes the time by discussing topics of the all-good Personality of Godhead.

– Bhagavat Purana 2.3.17

12. Creation

After one day of Brahma (the Creator), a partial annihilation occurs and the three planetary systems are destroyed. The universe is therefore not manifest during Brahma’s night, which is of the same duration as his day.

– Bhagavat Purana 12.4.3

Who is behind nature?

I am the source of all spiritual and material worlds. Everything emanates from Me. The wise who perfectly know this engage in My devotional service and worship Me with all their hearts.
– Bhagavad Gita 15.15

Varieties of birds are indications of His masterful artistic sense, Manu, the father of mankind, is the emblem of His standard intelligence and humanity is His residence.

– Bhagavat Purana 2.1.37

Everything animate or inanimate that is within the universe is controlled and owned by the Lord. One should therefore accept only those things necessary for himself, which are set aside as his quota, and one should not accept other things, knowing well to whom they belong.

– Sri Isopanishad Mantra One